Trichoderma Species: Versatile Plant Symbionts

Trichoderma Species: Versatile Plant Symbionts

Because of the need to provide food for the growing population, agricultural activity is faced with the huge challenge of counteracting the negative effects generated by adverse environmental factors and diseases caused by pathogens on crops, while avoiding environmental pollution due to the...

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The AMSH3 ESCRT-III-Associated Deubiquitinase Is Essential for Plant Immunity

The AMSH3 ESCRT-III-Associated Deubiquitinase Is Essential for Plant Immunity

Plant “nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat” receptor proteins (NLRs) detect alterations in host targets of pathogen effectors and trigger immune responses. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant pen1 syp122 displays autoimmunity, and a mutant screen identified the deubiquitinase “associated...

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PM 6/04 (1) Decision‐support scheme for import and release of biological control agents of plant pests

PM 6/04 (1) Decision‐support scheme for import and release of biological control agents of plant pests


This Standard is based on ISPM 11 (FAO, 2013) Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, ISPM 3 (FAO, 2005) Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms, EPPO Standard PM 5/3 (EPPO, 2011) Decision‐support scheme for...

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Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases

Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases

Plant pathogens have optimized their own effector sets to adapt to their hosts. However, certain effectors, regarded as core effectors, are conserved among various pathogens, and may therefore play an important and common role in pathogen virulence. We report here that the widely distributed fungal...

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Sugar partitioning between Ustilago maydis and its host Zea mays L during infection

Sugar partitioning between Ustilago maydis and its host Zea mays L during infection


The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize (Zea mays L.) by infecting all plant aerial tissues. The infection causes leaf chlorosis and stimulates the plant to produce nutrient-rich niches, i.e., tumors, where the fungus can proliferate and complete its life cycle. Previous...

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The Inherent Conflicts in Developing Soil Microbial Inoculants

The Inherent Conflicts in Developing Soil Microbial Inoculants

Certain soil microorganisms can perform agriculturally valuable functions such as ethylene reduction, plant pathogen suppression, and soil nutrient solubilization. Interest and investment in developing soil microbial inoculants to enhance these functions has recently surged, but...

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Analysis of small RNA silencing in Zymoseptoria tritici - wheat interactions

Analysis of small RNA silencing in Zymoseptoria tritici - wheat interactions

Cross-kingdom small RNA (sRNA) silencing has recently emerged as a mechanism facilitating fungal colonization and disease development. Here we characterized RNAi pathways in Zymoseptoria tritici, a major fungal pathogen of wheat, and assessed their contribution to pathogenesis. Computational...

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Transgenic crops and beyond: how can biotechnology contribute to the sustainable control of plant diseases?

Transgenic crops and beyond: how can biotechnology contribute to the sustainable control of plant diseases?

Disease resistance is without argument the best technological approach to control diseases in plants since no management input is required by the grower once the resistant variety has been planted. The biggest problems in using disease resistance lie in the facts that effective sources of resistance...

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