DRY MATTER, MINERAL COMPOSITION, AND COMMERCIAL STORAGE PRACTICES INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKIN PITTING CAUSED BY CADOPHORA LUTEO-OLIVACEA ON KIWIFRUIT ‘HAYWARD’

D. Spadaro, A. Galliano, C. Pellegrino, G. Gilardi, A. Garibaldi, M.L. Gullino

Abstract


In recent years a postharvest disease of kiwifruit caused by Cadophora luteo-olivacea, characterized by a pitting of the skin appearing after 3 or more months of storage, has been reported in most Italian packinghouses. This work reports the disease occurrence in northern Italy over a period of five years and the effects of commercial storage practices and kiwifruit dry matter or mineral composition on disease development. Throughout the experiments, C. luteo-olivacea was identified based on morphology and sequencing the ribosomal region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. Monitoring of seven packinghouses in 2001-2003, showed that skin pitting occurred when controlled atmosphere (CA) composed of 2% O2 and 4.5% CO2 was established within 8 to 12 days from the beginning of storage, while, when CA was established within 25 or more days, C. luteo-olivacea was absent. In 2002, the kiwifruit of 19 orchards were monitored during storage in which CA was established within 8 to 12 days. Before storage, the dry matter (DM), nitrogen, calcium and magnesium content were measured. DM was inversely related to the incidence of C. luteoolivacea (R2 = 0.5269) and the nitrogen content was directly related to skin pitting (R2 = 0.5015). During 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 different batches of kiwifruit, healthy or infected by C. luteo-olivacea, were analysed at the end of their storage. The disease incidence was significantly associated with dry matter (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: -0.853) and nitrogen content (0.815). A significantly lower calcium content was registered in some infected compared to healthy batches in 2004- 2005. Batches with predisposing factors, such as low DM and high nitrogen content, should be more carefully managed, reducing storage life and avoiding an excessively fast and stressing CA establishment.

Keywords


Actinidia deliciosa; calcium; controlled atmosphere; nitrogen; Phialophora luteo-olivacea

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4454/jpp.v92i2.176

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EDIZIONI ETS, Pisa, Italy