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INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRUSES IN TUNISIAN FIG ORCHARDS

M. El Air, N. Mahfoudhi, M. Digiaro, M.H. Dhouibi, T. Elbeaino

Abstract


A survey for viruses was carried out in the main fig-growing areas of Tunisia and in a fig germplasm collection at the Institut Supérieure Agronomique de Chatt Mariem of Sousse. A total of 232 leaf samples were collected randomly from symptomatic and symptomless fig trees of 26 cultivars, and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FMMaV-2), Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV), Fig cryptic virus (FCV), Fig fleck-associated virus (FFkaV) and Fig latent virus 1 (FLV-1), using specific sets of primers. About 62.1% of the samples tested were found to be infected by at least one virus. FMV was the prevailing virus with a 34.5% incidence, followed by FLV-1 (32.4%), FMMaV (10.7%), FLMaV-1 (10.3%), FFkaV (10.3%), FCV (9.9%) and FLMaV-2 (4.3%). The highest infection rate was observed in Sfax (100%), followed by Takelsa (73.4%), Djebba (70.2%), Sousse (66.6%), Mornag (54.4%) and Rafraf (50%), whereas it was moderate in Sidi Fraj (23.3%). Among all viruses detected, FMV was the most widespread, especially in Djebba (51.3%), Sfax (50%) and Takelsa (40.6%). According to the fig varieties, the highest infection rates were in the commercial cvs. Hamouri (87.5%), Bayoudhi (75%), Bouhouli (70.3%), Zidi (54.2%) Bither (53.8%), Bither Abyath (66.6%) and Soltani (69.2%). The results show the need to develop a clean stock program to prevent the dissemination of fig-infecting viruses associated with Fig mosaic disease in Tunisia.

Keywords


Fig-infecting viruses; PCR detection; Virus incidence; Distribution; Tunisia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4454/JPP.V97I2.030

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