VIRUS-INDUCED HYPOVIRULENCE IN CRYPHONECTRIA PARASITICA: STILL AN UNRESOLVED CONUNDRUM

M. Turina, L. Rostagno

Abstract


In this paper we review some of the most recent literature about the interactions between Cryphonectria parasitica, the ascomycete fungus that causes chestnut blight, and viruses in the species Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (family Hypoviridae), which, when present in the fungus, render the fungus incapable of causing the severe disease that is normally the result of infection of European and American chestnut trees (Castanea sativa and C. dentata, respectively). We provide an overview of the findings accumulated over the last few decades, in an attempt to link them to the technological advances made during this time. In particular, we focus on what is known about the molecular aspects of the virus-fungus interaction, detailing, and critically reviewing some recent findings and their significance in understanding the phenomenon of virus-induced hypovirulence. After describing the diversity of virus species that infect C. parasitica, we detail various aspects of the effects the presence of virus has on secretory pathways, and on various elements of signal transduction pathways. We also discuss the recent finding of a silencing suppressor encoded by the genome of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1, and recent results from studies of differential expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis.

Keywords


Chestnut blight; hypovirulence; hypovirus; silencing; signal transduction; secretion

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4454/jpp.v89i2.740

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