A kiwellin disarms the metabolic activity of a secreted fungal virulence factor

A kiwellin disarms the metabolic activity of a secreted fungal virulence factor

Fungi-induced plant diseases affect global food security and plant ecology. The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize (Zea mays) plants by secreting numerous virulence effectors that reprogram plant metabolism and immune responses. The secreted fungal chorismate mutase Cmu1...

Leggi...

Plant viruses transmitted in two different modes produce differing effects on small RNA-mediated processes in their aphid vector

Plant viruses transmitted in two different modes produce differing effects on small RNA-mediated processes in their aphid vector

Transmission of plant viruses by aphids involves multi-trophic interactions among host plants, aphid vectors, and plant viruses. Here, we used small RNA (sRNA) sequencing to visualize the sRNA response of Myzus persicae to two plant viruses that M. persicae transmits in different modes: the...

Leggi...

TALE‐carrying bacterial pathogens trap host nuclear import receptors for facilitation of infection of rice

TALE‐carrying bacterial pathogens trap host nuclear import receptors for facilitation of infection of rice


Many plant‐pathogenic Xanthomonas rely on the secretion of virulence transcription activator‐like effector (TALE) proteins into plant cells to activate plant susceptibility genes to cause disease. The process is dependent on the binding of TALEs to specific elements...

Leggi...

Trichoderma Species: Versatile Plant Symbionts

Trichoderma Species: Versatile Plant Symbionts

Because of the need to provide food for the growing population, agricultural activity is faced with the huge challenge of counteracting the negative effects generated by adverse environmental factors and diseases caused by pathogens on crops, while avoiding environmental pollution due to the...

Leggi...

The AMSH3 ESCRT-III-Associated Deubiquitinase Is Essential for Plant Immunity

The AMSH3 ESCRT-III-Associated Deubiquitinase Is Essential for Plant Immunity

Plant “nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat” receptor proteins (NLRs) detect alterations in host targets of pathogen effectors and trigger immune responses. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant pen1 syp122 displays autoimmunity, and a mutant screen identified the deubiquitinase “associated...

Leggi...

PM 6/04 (1) Decision‐support scheme for import and release of biological control agents of plant pests

PM 6/04 (1) Decision‐support scheme for import and release of biological control agents of plant pests


This Standard is based on ISPM 11 (FAO, 2013) Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, ISPM 3 (FAO, 2005) Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms, EPPO Standard PM 5/3 (EPPO, 2011) Decision‐support scheme for...

Leggi...

Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases

Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases

Plant pathogens have optimized their own effector sets to adapt to their hosts. However, certain effectors, regarded as core effectors, are conserved among various pathogens, and may therefore play an important and common role in pathogen virulence. We report here that the widely distributed fungal...

Leggi...

Sugar partitioning between Ustilago maydis and its host Zea mays L during infection

Sugar partitioning between Ustilago maydis and its host Zea mays L during infection


The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize (Zea mays L.) by infecting all plant aerial tissues. The infection causes leaf chlorosis and stimulates the plant to produce nutrient-rich niches, i.e., tumors, where the fungus can proliferate and complete its life cycle. Previous...

Leggi...