Ecology and evolution of toxigenic fusarium species in cereals in northern europe and asia
In northern Europe (Scandinavia, Finland and northwestern Russia) and Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) the most common Fusarium species responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) are the F. avenaceum/arthrosporioides/tricinctum, F. graminearum/culmorum/cerealis and F. poae/sporotrichioides/langsethiae species groups based on morphology. The most important mycotoxins produced by them are trichothecenes, zearalenone, moniformin and enniatins, including beauvericin. According to the molecular data the main lineages of F. avenaceum and F. arthrosporioides are types I (most F. avenaceum isolates) and II (some F. avenaceum isolates together with most F. arthrosporioides isolates). Lineage 7 of F. graminearum (= F. graminearum sensu stricto) dominates in northern Europe and Asia and has been replacing the closely related F. culmorum in northern Europe. F. asiaticum is the most common species of the F. graminearum/culmorum/cerealis species group in most parts of China and southern Japan, but it has not yet been found in Russia. The 3ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is prevalent in Scandinavia, Finland and north-western Russia, while the 15ADON chemotype of F. graminearum is more common in the more southern areas in Europe and China. Both the 3ADON and 15ADON chemotypes of F. graminearum are common in the Russian Far East together with the 3ADON chemotype of F. ussurianum and the 15ADON chemotype of F. vorosii. F. langsethiae can be divided into two lineages (subtypes) based on IGS sequences. The European F. langsethiae has only been found in Europe, while the Asian F. langsethiae in Siberia and the Russian Far East seems actually to be a lineage of F. sporotrichioides based on molecular data. Due to global warming and other human activities, we predict changes in the compositions of these species and mycotoxins produced by them.