A.G. Blouin, M.N. Pearson, R.R. Chavan, E.N.Y. Woo, B.S.M. Lebas, S. Veerakone, C. Ratti, R. Biccheri, R.M. MacDiarmid, D. Cohen
doi: 10.4454/JPP.V95I2.013
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was introduced to New Zealand more than one hundred years ago and the New Zealand-raised cv. Hayward is now the dominant cultivar grown worldwide. Further accessions of kiwifruit seed and scionwood have been sourced from China for research and breeding. In one importation consignment, the first virus naturally infecting kiwifruit, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), was identified following symptoms observed in quarantined plants (2003). Since that time a further 12 viruses have been identified in kiwifruit. We classify these 13 viruses into three groups. The first group comprises the non-specialist viruses and includes Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) both members of the family Bromoviridae. The group also includes a further five viruses that appear to have limited effect on kiwifruit: two tobamoviruses, Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) and Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV); a tombusvirus, Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV); a novel potexvirus; and Apple stem gooving virus (ASGV, genus Capillovirus). Most of the viruses classified in this first group are cosmopolitan and sometimes orchard weeds provide reservoirs for infection. The second group comprises the kiwifruit-adapted viruses. This group includes three novel viruses. i.e. two vitiviruses, Actinidia virus A (AcVA) and Actinidia virus B (AcVB), and a citrivirus closely related to Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV). In addition, preliminary evidence of a novel virus belonging to the Closteroviridae family has been obtained. The third group of viruses induces disease in kiwifruit. To date only two viruses have caused significant damage to kiwifruit within commercial orchards. In New Zealand, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) has been detected on kiwifruit associated with symptoms including leaf spots, fruit malformation, reduction in yield, bark cracking and cane wilting. Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) has been detected in Italy associated with severe symptoms on leaves and fruit.