IDENTIFICATION OF BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUSES IN POLAND
Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most important and widespread viral disease of cereal crops, and is caused by a group of related spherical viruses belonging to the family Luteoviridae. In the spring of 2015, BYD symptoms were observed on several winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), rye (Secale cereale L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants throughout Poland. Infections were confirmed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay involving polyclonal antibodies raised against Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-MAV and BYDV-PAV. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assays were conducted on a subset of 35 samples collected from 11 provinces of Poland. The primer sets targeted the open reading frame-3 fragments of BYDV-GAV, -MAV, -PAV, -PAS, -RMV, and -SGV as well as Cereal yellow dwarf virusRPV species. The specificity of obtained products were verified by sequencing. Molecular analyses revealed the predominance of co-infections with BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV, and the presence of other viral species that induced BYD symptoms. A comparative analysis of coat protein gene sequences indicated that some Polish isolates were highly similar (i.e., 99% identity) to Chinese BYDV-GAV, Czech BYDV-PAS, and Jordanian and Turkish BYDV-SGV isolates, thus confirming that these isolates are BYDV-GAV, -PAS, or -SGV species. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report describing BYDV-GAV, BYDVPAS, and BYDV-SGV infections in Poland.