CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in filamentous fungi: progress and perspective
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Authors: Runjie SongQing ZhaiLu SunEnxia HuangYu ZhangYanli ZhuQingyun GuoEmail authorYanan TianBaoyu ZhaoHao Lu
Filamentous fungi play an important role in human health and industrial/agricultural production. With the increasing number of full genomes available for fungal species, the study of filamentous fungi has brought about a wider range of genetic manipulation opportunities. However, the utilization of traditional methods to study fungi is time consuming and laborious. Recent rapid progress and wide application of a versatile genome editing technology, i.e., the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)–Cas9 (CRISPR-related nuclease 9) system, has revolutionized biological research and has many innovative applications in a wide range of fields showing great promise in research and application of filamentous fungi. In this review, we introduce the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology focusing on its application in research of filamentous fungi and we discuss the general considerations of genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 system illustrating vector construction, multiple editing strategies, technical consideration of different sizes of homology arms on genome editing efficiency, off-target effects, and different transformation methodologies. In addition, we discuss the challenges encountered using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and give the perspectives of future applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for basic research and practical application of filamentous fungi.