Type III secretion inhibitors for the management of bacterial plant diseases
Molecular Plant Pathology

Authors: Marina Puigvert Montserrat Solé Belén López‐Garcia Núria S. Coll Karren D. Beattie Rohan A. Davis Mikael Elofsson Marc Valls
The identification of chemical compounds that prevent and combat bacterial diseases is fundamental for crop production. Bacterial virulence inhibitors are a promising alternative to classical control treatments, because they have a low environmental impact and are less likely to generate bacterial resistance. The major virulence determinant of most animal and plant bacterial pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS). In this work, we screened nine plant extracts and 12 isolated compounds—including molecules effective against human pathogens—for their capacity to inhibit the T3SS of plant pathogens and for their applicability as virulence inhibitors for crop protection. The screen was performed using a luminescent reporter system developed in the model pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Five synthetic molecules, one natural product and two plant extracts were found to down‐regulate T3SS transcription, most through the inhibition of the regulator hrpB. In addition, for three of the molecules, corresponding to salicylidene acylhydrazide derivatives, the inhibitory effect caused a dramatic decrease in the secretion capacity, which was translated into impaired plant responses. These candidate virulence inhibitors were then tested for their ability to protect plants. We demonstrated that salicylidene acylhydrazides can limit R. solanacearum multiplication in planta and protect tomato plants from bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Our work validates the efficiency of transcription reporters to discover compounds or natural product extracts that can be potentially applied to prevent bacterial plant diseases.