THE BIOGENIC AMINE HISTAMINE: PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT AND CONCENTRATIONS IN WINE
I. Schneider, A. Ansorge, P. Herr
Wine samples were collected from German wineries during a two-year study (2007/2008) and their histamine concentration was determined. The data from 2007 showed that between two wineries either no histamine or a low concentration of it was found when with starter cultures (Oenococcus oeni) were used or maximum values of 1,01 up to 7,30 mg/l were detected when spontaneous MLF (malolactic fermentation) occurred. In the 2008 survey maximum histamine concentrations ranged between 1,85 and 2,24 mg/l when the musts were inoculated with starter cultures and 2,77 to 3,37 mg/l in the case of spontaneous MLF. The two-year study showed that inoculation with starter cultures reduced concentrations of histamine in wine but if no spontaneous MLF-bacteria were present, there was no histamine in the wines.