CULTURAL APPROACHES FOR DISEASE MANAGEMENT: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
Cultural practices (CPs) can be harnessed for the management of foliar and soilborne diseases by creating an environment which is favorable for the crop and unfavorable for the pathogen. Certain CPs, e.g. flooding and sanitation, are used mainly for pest control while others, e.g. irrigation, can be used for both crop management and pest control. Some CPs, e.g. deep plowing, crop rotation, flaming sanitation, soil solarization and biofumigation, are used as preplanting measures, whereas others, e.g. water and mineral nutrition management, tillage, and alteration of soil temperature, are used both pre- and postplanting. Special plastic covers can be used in protected agriculture to manipulate insect behavior, thereby reducing infestation. CPs are potential components in integrated pest-management programs.