THE CHALLENGE OF CHEMICAL CONTROL AS PART OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
U. Gisi, A. Leadbeater
The interactions network for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) consists of five major elements: crop plants (species and cultivars), pest populations, environment (climate, soil, habitat), consumers and economy. Of special importance in this context is the economypest population interaction with aspects such as the implementation and cost-benefit relationship of pest control strategies. The challenges for crop protection in targeted IPM addresses aspects such as globalisation, climate change, reinforced plant protection policies, consumer demands for safe food and reduction of risks to human health and environment. It has become increasingly difficult for growers to control crop diseases. Genetic resistance of crop plants towards diseases has been in many cases short-lived and GMOs have only limited success for disease control and acceptability. With more intensive cropping, new diseases, new races and more aggressive pathotypes of diseases may arise. All these changes require chemical control measures to prevent economic disaster, since reliance on genetic resistance, biological control and cultural techniques have been insufficient. Intensive use of chemical control measures has in turn led to its own challenges, including resistance to pesticides. The sustainable use of pesticides to prolong their effectiveness and usefulness to growers is key, and the implementation of resistance management strategies an essential part of this.