INCIDENCE AND NATURAL SPREAD OF APPLE MOSAIC VIRUS ON HAZELNUT IN THE WEST BLACK SEA COAST OF TURKEY AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD
B. Akbaş, K. Değirmenci
The status of Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), causal agent of hazelnut mosaic, was investigated in Turkey by examining hazelnut plants visually, serologically and by biological indexing. A survey of 213 orchards was carried out in 2005-2008 during the growing season in the west Black Sea region. A total of 1465 hazelnuts were sampled and tested. Disease symptoms were observed in 84 orchards. ELISA and transmission to Chenopodium quinoa and Cucumis sativus confirmed the presence of ApMV in symptomatic samples only. Average infection rate was 13.6%. The effect of infection on hazelnut trees were examined in three different provinces collecting data on plant yield from selected trees. Crop losses ranged from 19.7 to 35.6% (28.2% in average) and infected trees showed a slight growth reduction.