S.M. Sanzani, L. Schena, F. Nigro, V. Sergeeva, A. Ippolito, M.G. Salerno
doi: 10.4454/JPP.FA.2012.069
Several non-parasitic diseases are of primary significance for olive trees growing in the Mediterranean area and other warm-temperate regions of the world. As for other crops, they are generally poorly understood and often completely unrecognized, especially in olive which is considered a crop of marginal lands. The origin may rest with a lack/excess of essential nutrients or an excess of non-essential elements; it may be an unsatisfactory environment: too cold or hot, too wet or dry, or too windy; there may be unsuitable soil characteristics such as poor physical condition, water-logging, salinity, improper pH, and so on. Also pollution in the environment, spray and fire damage, and climatic extremes like lightning, hail, and snow can cause heavy losses to olive. This review focuses on the most important disorders of olive caused by environmental, physical, and chemical stresses that can affect the normal physiological processes in trees. An integrated view is utilized to highlight interactions with plant healthiness, production, and quality.