D. Gallitelli, G.L. Rana, C. Vovlas, G.P. Martelli
doi: 10.4454/jpp.v86i4.998
An account is given of the current knowledge of viruses that infect globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) and the diseases they cause. Most of the 23 viruses found in these crops were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, where they constitute serious threats to the artichoke industry. They are: 10 viruses with isometric particles ca 30 nm in diameter that belong to six genera [Nepovirus (Artichoke Italian latent virus, Artichoke yellow ringspot virus, Artichoke Aegean ringspot virus, and Tomato black ring virus), Cheravirus (Artichoke vein banding virus), Fabavirus (Broad bean wilt virus), Ilarvirus (Tobacco streak virus), Cucumovirus (Cucumber mosaic virus), Tombusvirus (Artichoke mottled crinkle virus), and Anulavirus, a newly proposed genus in the family Bromoviridae (Pelargonium zonate spot virus)]; two viruses with rod-shaped rigid particles that belong to the genera Tobamovirus (Tobacco mosaic virus) and Tobravirus (Tobacco rattle virus); nine viruses with filamentous particles that belong to four genera [Potyvirus (Artichoke latent virus, Bean yellow mosaic virus, and Turnip mosaic virus), Carlavirus (Artichoke latent virus M, Artichoke latent virus S, an unnamed virus distantly related serologically to Poplar mosaic virus), Potexvirus (Artichoke curly dwarf virus, Artichoke degeneration virus, and Potato virus X), and Crinivirus (Tomato infectious chlorosis virus)]; two viruses with enveloped particles that belong to the family Rhabdoviridae (Cynara virus) or the genus Tospovirus (Tomato spotted wilt virus), respectively. The main properties of these viruses are illustrated and the techniques used for their detection and identification are reviewed. Micropropagation techniques for obtaining virus-free artichoke plants are also outlined.