Non-TAL Effectors From Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Suppress Peptidoglycan-Triggered MAPK Activation in Rice
Frontiers in Plant Science

Authors: Juying Long, Congfeng Song, Fang Yan, Junhui Zhou, Huanbin Zhou and Bing Yang
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice, depends on its type III secretion system and associated effector proteins to grow and colonize the vascular tissues of rice plants. The type III effectors include a family of closely related transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors and the rest of diverse effectors, so-called non-TAL effectors. Our understanding of non-TAL effectors for pathogenesis in rice blight is still limited. Here we report a feasible method to rapidly detect the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in rice mesophyll protoplasts by the X. oryzae pv. oryzae derived peptidoglycan and screen for virulent effectors that can suppress the pathogen-associated molecular pattern triggered immunity (PTI) response. Amongst 17 non-TAL effectors transiently expressed in rice cells, we found that three effectors (XopZ, XopN, and XopV) were able to suppress the peptidoglycan-triggered MAPK activation. The triple mutant of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae strain PXO99A lacking XopZ, XopN, and XopV showed additively reduced virulence. Adding back either of genes restored the virulence of the triple mutant. Our results demonstrate the collective and redundant ability of defense suppression by non-TAL effectors in causing bacterial blight of rice.