Trichoderma species associated with green mould disease of Pleurotus ostreatus and their sensitivity to prochloraz
Plant Pathology

2019 - Vol. 68 - pag. 392-398
Authors: G. Innocenti M. Montanari H. Righini R. Roberti
Green mould disease causes serious economic losses in Pleurotus ostreatus crops worldwide, including in Italy, where prochloraz is the only chemical fungicide allowed to control the disease. The effectiveness of the doses 0.01, 0.05, 0.25 and 1.25 μL L−1 (field dose) of prochloraz (Sponix Flow, 450 g L−1), against colony growth rate and spore germination of Trichoderma pleuroti, T. pleuroticola and T. guizhouense strains on wheat straw extract agar plates were evaluated. Complete inhibition of Trichoderma pleuroti and T. pleuroticola growth was shown by the field dose of prochloraz, and also by the 0.25 μL L−1 dose for T. pleuroti. Complete inhibition of spore germination occurred for all Trichoderma strains at field dose, and at 0.25 μL L−1 for T. pleuroti strains. In in vivo assays, the effect of prochloraz doses 0.05, 0.25 and 1.25 μL L−1 on colonization of straw substrate by Tpleuroti, T. pleuroticola and T. guizhouense inoculated at two spore densities (102 and 105 spores mL−1) immediately after P. ostreatus spawn was studied. Trichoderma pleuroti and T. pleuroticola were both responsible for green mould disease, whereas T. guizhouense was not pathogenic. Trichoderma pleuroti was more aggressive than T. pleuroticola. Prochloraz was effective against T. pleuroti at the field dose, and against T. pleuroticola at 0.25 and 1.25 μL L−1. The study on Trichoderma × Pleurotus interaction type showed that Trichoderma species were active against the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus by competition for space and nutrients, and neither hyphal interaction nor effect by volatile or nonvolatile metabolites occurred.